Distinguished Research Professor

Contact Info

Office:
274A
Phone Number:
Lab Office:
241,243
Research Interests:

Our group is interested in the study and growth of thin film materials. We are developing the electrochemical form of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALE is a method where atomic layers of the elements making up a compound are deposited in a cycle, using surface limited reactions. In that way, growth is always layer by layer, promoting the epitaxial growth high quality thin films. Electrochemical surface limited reactions are generally referred to as underpotential deposition, or UPD. UPD is the phenomenon where an element is deposited at a potential prior to (under) that needed to deposit the element on itself. Deposition is facilitated by the free energy of formation of a surface compound. That is, a solution containing a precursor for a first element is reacted at a controlled potential with a previously deposited atomic layer of a second element, until the surface is covered, forming a compound monolayer. In electrochemical ALE (EC-ALE), the solution is then exchanged for one containing a precursor to the second element, and from which an atomic layer of it is deposited at a controlled potential, completing the deposition of one monolayer of the compound. Thin films are grown by repeating this cycle as many times as desired.

   Semiconductors investigated so far include II-VIs, IV-VIs and III-Vs. Currently, the majority of our work has involved growth of the II-VI compounds CdTe, CdSe, CdS, ZnTe, ZnSe, ZnS, HgSe and HgTe. Some work investigating growth of the III-V compounds GaAs, InSb, GaSb and InAs has been pursued, as has deposition of the turnery compound CuInSe2. Recently, excellent cycles for the growth of PbSe and PbTe have been developed.

   There are hundreds of studies reported in the literature concerning the electrochemical growth of compound semiconductors. There is even a commercial process for the formation of CdTe for photovoltaics. Most of these studies use a simpler, quicker method, referred to here as co-deposition, where a single solution containing precursors for both of them, is used to deposit both elements simultaneously at a controlled potential or current density. In terms of speed and simplicity, EC-ALE is not competitive with codeposition, however, the degrees of freedom available in co-deposition are severely limited compared to EC-ALE. EC-ALE provides much increased control over deposit structure, morphology, and composition, by having separately optimized solutions and potentials for each element. In addition, as EC-ALE is based on layer by layer growth, so that epitaxy can be facilitated and atomic layer control over deposit thickness is a by product.

   Most of the materials we are depositing are compound semiconductors, and in general are optoelectronic materials. These compounds are used to form emitters and detectors: light emitting diodes, lasers, photovoltaics, and photon sensors. They are characterized by their band gap, which determines the energies of photons emitted or detected by devices made with these materials.

   The advantages of atomic layer control are evident in the formation of nanostructured materials. Quantum confinement is when the electronic states of a material are a function of the dimensions of the material. That is, when an optoelectronic material absorbs a photon, it creates an exciton, an electron hole pair. The nominal distance between the electron and hole is a function of the compound, and has been referred to as the Bohr radius. If the dimensions of the material are smaller then say the Bohr radius, the exciton is perturbed by the walls of the material in which it is confined. Just like a particle in a box, the separation between states increases the smaller the box. This frequently results in a blue shift in the ban gap, a shift to higher energy of the photons emitted or absorbed by the material. The result is that if you can control the dimensions of the material in the nanometer range, you can manipulate the band gap, i.e. band gap engineering.

   One way to achieve this is to make a superlattice, a material where very thin films of two materials are alternated. Frequently such films require individual films which are a few monolayers thick, and that is where atomic level control over the deposition process becomes useful. Using EC-ALE it is a simple process to form four monolayers of one compound and then four of a second, and then repeat this whole process in order to form a superlattice.

   Superlattices are materials confined in only one dimension. By forming nanowires or nanoclusters, where there are two or three dimensions of confinement, much stronger confinement can be produced. Electrochemical formation of wires or clusters, becomes relatively easy with a template. That is, one of the nice things about electrodeposition is that it only takes place on an electrode, a conductive substrate, selective area deposition. By using a nanostructured electrode, nanostructured deposits are formed. Presently, both superlattices and nanoclusters have been formed using EC-ALE. Spectroscopy of these materials is carried out by Professor Uwe Happek in the Physics Department here at UGA.

   Studies of EC-ALE are presently directed towards the growth of more and new materials, as well as superlattices and nanocrystals. In addition, as EC-ALE is a process based on surface limited electrochemical reactions, a significant effort is directed towards the surface chemistry central to the formation of these compounds.

   Studies of film growth involve development of an automated electrochemical flow cell reactors, in which electrochemical ALE can be performed. Resulting deposits are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), ellipsometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, as noted above, the optical properties of these materials are being studied in Physics here at UGA, using surface reflection FTIR, and photoconductivity. Photoelectrochemical studies are also underway in the Stickney lab.

   In atomic level studies, a number of surface sensitive techniques are used to investigate the atomic layer formation. For many of these techniques, ultra high vacuum (UHV) is required. UHV surface analysis chambers used for these studies contain optics for low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In addition, electrochemical cells have been directly interfaced to these chambers, so that substrates can be characterized before experiments, and deposits can be characterized after, all without exposure to air. In addition, STM is being performed in-situ, during deposition, to better understand the origins of particular defect structures. Recently, an electrochemical flow cell with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been used to follow both the currents for deposition and the mass changes as each atomic layer is deposited.

Selected Publications:

2017-2018

Bui, N. N., Ledina, M., Reber, T. J., Jung, J., & Stickney, J. L. (2017). Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopic Study of the Potential Dependence of Germanene Growth on Au(111) at pH 9.0. ACS Nano, 11(9), 9481-9489. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b05236

Benson, D. M., Tsang, C. F., Sugar, J. D., Jagannathan, K., Robinson, D. B., El Gabaly, F., . . . Stickney, J. L. (2017). Enhanced Kinetics of Electrochemical Hydrogen Uptake and Release by Palladium Powders Modified by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition. ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 9(21), 18338-18345. doi:10.1021/acsami.7603005

Tsang, C. F., Ledina, M. A., & Stickney, J. L. (2017). Molybdenum diselenide formation using electrochemical atomic layer deposition (E-ALD). JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 793, 242-249. doi:10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.01.065

Stickney, J. L. (n.d.). UHV-EC studies of CO2 reduction at well-defined Cu(hkl) catalysts. I. Structure and composition of clean and O2-exposed surfaces in alkaline solutions. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry/elsever.

Stickney, J. L., Kim, J., & Kim, Y. (n.d.). Studies of Cu Atomic Layer Replacement, formed by Underpotential deposits, to Form Pt Nanofilms Using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy (EC-ALE). In Transactions Vol. 1 (pp. 41-48).

Czerniawski, J. M., Perdue, B. R., & Stickney, J. L. (2016). Potential Pulse Atomic Layer Deposition of Cu2Se. CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, 28(2), 583-591. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04211

Stickney, J. L., & Banga, D. (n.d.). PbTe-PbSe Superlattice Formation by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy. In Electrochemical Society Vol. 6 (pp. 439-449).

Sheridan, L. B., Yates, V. M., Benson, D. M., Stickney, J. L., & Robinson, D. B. (2014). Hydrogen sorption properties of bare and Rh-modified Pd nanofilms grown via surface limited redox replacement reactions. ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, 128, 400-405. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2013.10.096

Banga, D., Perdue, B., & Stickney, J. (2014). Electrodeposition of a PbTe/CdTe superlattice by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (E-ALD). JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 716, 129-135. doi:10.1016/j.jelechem.2013.08.009

Stickney, J. L. (n.d.). Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD) of Semiconductors.

Gebregziabiher, D. K., Ledina, M. A., Preisser, R., & Stickney, J. L. (2012). Cu(111) Surface Passivation with Atomic Layers of Te, Se or I, Studied Using Auger Spectrscopy. Unknown Journal, 159, H675-H679. doi:10.1149/2.001208jes

Thambidurai, C., Kim, Y. -G., Jayaraju, N., Venkatasamy, V., & Stickney, J. L. (2009). Copper Nanofilm Formation by Electrochemical ALD. JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, 156(8), D261-D268. doi:10.1149/1.3134555

2016

Czerniawski, J. M. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrodeposition of In 2 Se 3 Using Potential Pulse Atomic Layer Deposition. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2016.

Czerniawski, J. M. ; Perdue, B. R. ; Stickney, J. L. Potential Pulse Atomic Layer Deposition of Cu 2 Se. Chemistry of Materials 2016, 28, 583 - 591.

2014

Cappillino, P. J. ; Sugar, J. D. ; Gabaly, F. El; Cai, T. Y. ; Liu, Z. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Robinson, D. B. Atomic-Layer Electroless Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface-Modified Metal Powders. Langmuir 2014, 30, 4820 - 4829.

Sheridan, L. B. ; Yates, V. M. ; Benson, D. M. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Robinson, D. B. Hydrogen sorption properties of bare and Rh-modified Pd nanofilms grown via surface limited redox replacement reactions. Electrochimica Acta 2014, 128, 400 - 405.

Jayaraju, N. ; Banga, D. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Liang, X. ; Kim, Y. - G. ; Stickney, J. L. PtRu Nanofilm Formation by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD). Langmuir 2014, 30, 3254 - 3263.

Baricuatro, J. H. ; Ehlers, C. B. ; Cummins, K. D. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Kim, Y. - G. Structure and composition of Cu(hkl) surfaces exposed to O2 and emersed from alkaline solutions: Prelude to UHV-EC studies of CO2 reduction at well-defined copper catalysts. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2014, 716, 101 - 105.

Banga, D. ; Perdue, B. ; Stickney, J. Electrodeposition of a PbTe/CdTe superlattice by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (E-ALD). Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2014, 716, 129 - 135.

Banga, D. ; Perdue, B. ; Stickney, J. Formation of CuIn(1-x)GaxSe2 (CIGS) by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2014, 161, D141 - D146.

2013

Sheridan, L. B. ; Gebregziabiher, D. K. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Robinson, D. B. Formation of Palladium Nanofilms Using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD) with Chloride Complexation. Langmuir 2013, 29, 1592 - 1600.

Sheridan, L. B. ; Kim, Y. - G. ; Perdue, B. R. ; Jagannathan, K. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Robinson, D. B. Hydrogen Adsorption, Absorption, and Desorption at Palladium Nanofilms formed on Au(111) by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD): Studies using Voltammetry and In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2013, 117, 15728 - 15740.

Yan, Z. ; Jiang, C. ; Pope, T. R. ; Tsang, C. F. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Goli, P. ; Renteria, J. ; Salguero, T. T. ; Balandin, A. A. Phonon and thermal properties of exfoliated TaSe2 thin films. Journal of Applied Physics 2013, 114, 204301.

Tsang, C. ; Kim, Y. - G. ; Gebregziabiher, D. ; Stickney, J. Ta Surface Chemistry in Aqueous Solutions and the Possible Formation of TaTe2 and TaS3. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2013, 160, D3278 - D3284.

2012

Banga, D. ; Jarayaju, N. ; Sheridan, L. ; Kim, Y. - G. ; Perdue, B. ; Zhang, X. ; Zhang, Q. ; Stickney, J. Electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 (CIS) via Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD). Langmuir 2012, 28, 3024 - 3031.

Hossain, M. A. ; Cummins, K. D. ; Park, Y. - S. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Pd on Pt(111) Electrode: an Electron Spectroscopy–Electrochemistry Study. Electrocatalysis 2012, 3, 183 - 191.

Gebregziabiher, D. K. ; Ledina, M. A. ; Preisser, R. ; Stickney, J. L. Cu(111) Surface Passivation with Atomic Layers of Te, Se or I, Studied Using Auger Spectrscopy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2012, 159, H675 - H679.

Jayaraju, N. ; Vairavapandian, D. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Banga, D. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD) of Pt Nanofilms Using SLRR Cycles. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2012, 159, D616 - D622.

2011

Abreu, J. B. ; Sanabria-Chinchilla, J. ; Cummins, K. D. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. The structure, composition and reactivity of clean and ambient-exposed polycrystalline and monocrystalline Mg surfaces. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2011, 662, 36 - 42.

Liang, X. ; Zhang, Q. ; Lay, M. D. ; Stickney, J. L. Growth of Ge Nanofilms Using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition, with a “Bait and Switch” Surface-Limited Reaction. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011, 133, 8199 - 8204.

Banga, D. ; Kim, Y. - G. ; Stickney, J. PbSe∕PbTe Superlattice Formation via E-ALD. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2011, 158, D99.

Liang, X. ; Jayaraju, N. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Zhang, Q. ; Stickney, J. L. Controlled Electrochemical Formation of Ge x Sb y Te z using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Chemistry of Materials 2011, 23, 1742 - 1752.

2010

Liang, X. H. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Gebergziabiher, D. K. ; Stickney, J. L. Aqueous Electrodeposition of Ge Monolayers. Langmuir 2010, 26, 2877-2884.

Gebregziabiher, D. K. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Ivanova, V. ; Haumesser, P. H. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of copper nanofilms on ruthenium. Journal of Crystal Growth 2010, 312, 1271-1276.

Thambidurai, C. ; Gebregziabiher, D. K. ; Liang, X. H. ; Zhang, Q. H. ; Ivanova, V. ; Haumesser, P. H. ; Stickney, J. L. E-ALD of Cu Nanofilms on Ru/Ta Wafers Using Surface Limited Redox Replacement. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2010, 157, D466-D471.

2009

Thambidurai, C. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Jayaraju, N. ; Venkatasamy, V. ; Stickney, J. L. Copper Nanofilm Formation by Electrochemical ALD. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2009, 156, D261-D268.

2008

Thambidurai, C. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrodeposition of Ru by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Electrochimica Acta 2008, 53, 6157-6164.

Banga, D. O. ; Vaidyanathan, R. ; Liang, X. H. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Cox, S. ; Happeck, U. Formation of PbTe nanofilms by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ALD). Electrochimica Acta 2008, 53, 6988-6994.

Kim, J. Yu; Kim, Y. - G. ; Stickney, J. L. Cu nanofilm formation by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the presence of chloride ions. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2008, 621, 205 - 213.

Kim, J. Y. ; Stickney, J. L. Ultrahigh vacuum surface studies of the electrochemical atomic layer deposition of indium telluride on n-type GaAs(100). Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2008, 112, 5966-5971.

Venkatasamy, V. ; Shao, I. ; Huang, Q. ; Stickney, J. L. ALD approach toward electrodeposition of Sb2Te3 for phase-change memory applications. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2008, 155, D693-D698.

2007

Kim, Y. G. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Stickney, J. L. Pb deposition on I-coated Au(111). UHV-EC and EC-STM studies. Langmuir 2007, 23, 2539-2545.

Venkatasamy, V. ; Jayaraju, N. ; Cox, S. M. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Stickney, J. L. Studies of Hg(1-x)CdxTe formation by electrochemical atomic layer deposition and investigations into bandgap engineering. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2007, 154, H720-H725.

Kim, J. Y. ; Kim, Y. G. ; Stickney, J. L. Copper nanofilm formation by electrochemical atomic layer deposition - Ultrahigh-vacuum electrochemical and in situ STM studies. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2007, 154, D260-D266.

2006

Kim, Y. G. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Vairavapandian, D. ; Stickney, J. L. Platinum nanofilm formation by EC-ALE via redox replacement of UPD copper: Studies using in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2006, 110, 17998-18006.

Venkatasamy, V. ; Jayaraju, N. ; Cox, S. M. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Optimization of CdTe nanofilm formation by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2006, 36, 1223-1229.

Muthuvel, M. ; Stickney, J. L. CdTe electrodeposition on InP(100) via electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE): Studies using UHV-EC. Langmuir 2006, 22, 5504-5508.

Venkatasamy, V. ; Mathe, M. K. ; Cox, S. M. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Optimization studies of HgSe thin film deposition by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Electrochimica Acta 2006, 51, 4347-4351.

Vaidyanathan, R. ; Cox, S. M. ; Happek, U. ; Banga, D. ; Mathe, M. K. ; Stickney, J. L. Preliminary studies in the electrodeposition of PbSe/PbTe superlattice thin films via electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ALD). Langmuir 2006, 22, 10590-10595.

Venkatasamy, V. ; Jayaraju, N. ; Cox, S. M. ; Thambidurai, C. ; Mathe, M. ; Stickney, J. L. Deposition of HgTe by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2006, 589, 195-202.

Muthuvel, M. ; Stickney, J. Surface chemistry of InP(100) after wet and electrochemical etching - Is digital etching possible?. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2006, 153, C67-C73.

2005

Mathe, M. K. ; Cox, S. M. ; Venkatasamy, V. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of HgSe thin films using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2005, 152, C751-C755.

2004

Mathe, M. K. ; Cox, S. M. ; Flowers, B. H. ; Vaidyanathan, R. ; Pham, L. ; Srisook, N. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Deposition of CdSe by EC-ALE. Journal of Crystal Growth 2004, 271, 55-64.

Vaidyanathan, R. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Happek, U. Quantum confinement in PbSe thin films electrodeposited by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). Electrochimica Acta 2004, 49, 1321-1326.

Lay, M. D. ; Stickney, J. L. EC-STM studies of Te and CdTe atomic layer formation from a basic Te solution. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2004, 151, C431-C435.

2003

Lay, M. D. ; Varazo, K. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of sulfur atomic layers on gold from aqueous solutions of sulfide and thiosulfate: Studies using EC-STM, UHV-EC, and TLEC. Langmuir 2003, 19, 8416-8427.

Lay, M. D. ; Sorenson, T. A. ; Stickney, J. L. High-resolution electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) flow-cell studies. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2003, 107, 10598-10602.

Lay, M. D. ; Varazo, K. ; Srisook, N. ; Stickney, J. L. Cd underpotential deposition (upd) from a sulfate electrolyte on Au(111): studies by in situ STM and UHV-EC. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2003, 554, 221-231.

Vaidyanathan, R. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Cox, S. M. ; Compton, S. P. ; Happek, U. Formation of In2Se3 thin films and nanostructures using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2003, 559, 55-61.

Lay, M. D. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrodeposition of Au-Cd alloy nanostructures on au(111). Journal of the American Chemical Society 2003, 125, 1352-1355.

2002

Flowers, B. H. ; Wade, T. L. ; Garvey, J. W. ; Lay, M. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Atomic layer epitaxy of CdTe using an automated electrochemical thin-layer flow deposition reactor. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2002, 524, 273-285.

Varazo, K. ; Lay, M. D. ; Sorenson, T. A. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of the first monolayers of CdTe on Au(111) by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE): studied by LEED, Auger, XPS, and in-situ STM. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2002, 522, 104-114.

2001

Wade, T. L. ; Vaidyanathan, R. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical formation of a III-V compound semiconductor superlattice: InAs/InSb. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2001, 500, 322-332.

Sorenson, T. A. ; Varazo, K. ; Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of and phase transitions in electrodeposited tellurium atomic layers on Au(111). Surface Science 2001, 470, 197-214.

Ward, L. C. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrodeposition of Sb onto the low-index planes of Cu in aqueous chloride solutions: studies by LEED, AES and electrochemistry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2001, 3, 3364-3370.

1999

Sorenson, T. A. ; Lister, T. E. ; Huang, B. M. ; Stickney, J. L. A comparison of atomic layers formed by electrodeposition of selenium and tellurium - Scanning tunneling microscopy studies on au(100) and Au(111). Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1999, 146, 1019-1027.

Sorenson, T. A. ; Suggs, D. W. ; Nandhakumar, I. ; Stickney, J. L. Phase transitions in the electrodeposition of tellurium atomic layers on Au(100). Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1999, 467, 270-281.

Wade, T. ; Garst, J. F. ; Stickney, J. L. A simple modification of a commercial atomic force microscopy liquid cell for in situ imaging in organic, reactive, or air sensitive environments. Review of Scientific Instruments 1999, 70, 121-124.

Wade, T. L. ; Ward, L. C. ; Maddox, C. B. ; Happek, U. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrodeposition of InAs. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters 1999, 2, 616-618.

Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy. Electroanalytical Chemistry, Vol 21 1999, 21, 75-209.

1998

Abreu, J. B. ; Soto, J. E. ; Ashley-Facey, A. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Garst, J. F. ; Stickney, J. L. The interfacial chemistry of the Grignard reaction: The composition of the film formed on air-exposed magnesium. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 1998, 206, 247-251.

Colletti, L. P. ; Stickney, J. L. Optimization of the growth of CdTe thin films formed by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy in an automated deposition system. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1998, 145, 3594-3602.

Colletti, L. P. ; Flowers, B. H. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of thin films of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1998, 145, 1442-1449.

1997

Huang, B. M. ; Lister, T. E. ; Stickney, J. L. Se adlattices formed on Au(100), studies by LEED, AES, STM and electrochemistry. Surface Science 1997, 392, 27-43.

Lister, T. E. ; Colletti, L. P. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical formation of CdSe monolayers on the low index planes of Au. Israel Journal of Chemistry 1997, 37, 287-295.

Sorenson, T. A. ; Wilmer, B. K. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical digital etching: Atomic level studies of CdTe(100). Solid-Liquid Electrochemical Interfaces 1997, 656, 115-125.

1996

Lister, T. E. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of the first monolayer of CdSe on Au(111) by electrochemical ALE. Applied Surface Science 1996, 107, 153-160.

DeClements, R. ; Swain, G. M. ; Dallas, T. ; Holtz, M. W. ; Herrick, R. D. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical and surface structural characterization of hydrogen plasma treated glassy carbon electrodes. Langmuir 1996, 12, 6578-6586.

Lister, T. E. ; Stickney, J. L. Atomic level studies of selenium electrodeposition on gold(111) and gold(110). Journal of Physical Chemistry 1996, 100, 19568-19576.

1995

Lister, T. E. ; Huang, B. M. ; Herrick, R. D. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical Formation of Se Atomic Layers on Au(100). Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 1995, 13, 1268-1273.

Goetting, L. B. ; Huang, B. M. ; Lister, T. E. ; Stickney, J. L. Preparation of Au Single-Crystals for Studies of the Ecale Deposition of Cdte. Electrochimica Acta 1995, 40, 143-158.

1994

Colletti, L. P. ; Teklay, D. ; Stickney, J. L. Thin-Layer Electrochemical Studies of the Oxidative Underpotential Deposition of Sulfur and Its Application to the Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy Deposition of Cds. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1994, 369, 145-152.

1993

Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Studies of the Structures Formed by the Alternated Electrodeposition of Atomic Layers of Cd and Te on the Low-Index Planes of Au .1. Leed and Auger Studies. Surface Science 1993, 290, 362-374.

Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Studies of the Surface-Structures Formed by the Alternated Electrodeposition of Cd and Te on the Low-Index Planes of Au .2. Stm Studies. Surface Science 1993, 290, 375-387.

1992

Villegas, I. ; Stickney, J. L. Gaas Deposition on the (100) and (110) Planes of Gold by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy - a Low-Energy Electron-Diffraction, Auger-Electron Spectroscopy, and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology a-Vacuum Surfaces and Films 1992, 10, 3032-3038.

Villegas, I. ; Stickney, J. L. Preliminary Studies of Gaas Deposition on Au(100), (110), and (111) Surfaces by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1992, 139, 686-694.

Suggs, D. W. ; Villegas, I. ; Gregory, B. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of Compound Semiconductors by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology a-Vacuum Surfaces and Films 1992, 10, 886-891.

1991

Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Characterization of Atomic Layers of Tellurium Electrodeposited on the Low-Index Planes of Gold. Journal of Physical Chemistry 1991, 95, 10056-10064.

Gregory, B. W. ; Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Conditions for the Deposition of Cdte by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1991, 138, 1279-1284.

Villegas, I. ; Stickney, J. L. Formation of Ordered, Nonreconstructed Cdte(111) Surfaces Electrochemically - Studies by Leed and Auger-Electron Spectroscopy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1991, 138, 1310-1316.

Bravo, B. G. ; Michelhaugh, S. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Villegas, I. ; Suggs, D. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Anodic Underpotential Deposition and Cathodic Stripping of Iodine at Polycrystalline and Single-Crystal Gold - Studies by Leed, Aes, Xps, and Electrochemistry. Journal of Physical Chemistry 1991, 95, 5245-5249.

Gregory, B. W. ; Stickney, J. L. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy (Ecale). Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1991, 300, 543-561.

1990

Gregory, B. W. ; Norton, M. L. ; Stickney, J. L. Thin-Layer Electrochemical Studies of the Underpotential Deposition of Cadmium and Tellurium on Polycrystalline Au, Pt and Cu Electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1990, 293, 85-101.

Villegas, I. ; Ehlers, C. B. ; Stickney, J. L. Ordering of Copper Single-Crystal Surfaces in Solution - Confirmation by Low-Energy Electron-Diffraction. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1990, 137, 3143-3148.

Ehlers, C. B. ; Villegas, I. ; Stickney, J. L. The Surface-Chemistry of Cu (100) in Hcl Solutions as a Function of Potential - a Study by Leed, Auger-Spectroscopy and Depth Profiling. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1990, 284, 403-412.

1989

Stickney, J. L. ; Ehlers, C. B. Surface-Chemistry of Electrodes - Cu(111) in Aqueous Hcl. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology a-Vacuum Surfaces and Films 1989, 7, 1801-1805.

Harris, J. E. ; Bothwell, M. E. ; Rodriguez, J. F. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. Reductive Elimination of Surface-Coordinated Iodine at Platinum-Electrodes - the Influence of Codeposited Silver. Journal of Physical Chemistry 1989, 93, 2610-2614.

Stickney, J. L. ; Villegas, I. ; Ehlers, C. B. Insitu Restoration of Atomically Well-Ordered Copper Single-Crystal Electrode Surfaces. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1989, 111, 6473-6474.

1988

Stickney, J. L. ; Ehlers, C. B. ; Gregory, B. W. Adsorption of Gaseous and Aqueous Hcl on the Low-Index Planes of Copper. Langmuir 1988, 4, 1368-1373.

Stickney, J. L. ; Gregory, B. W. ; Ehlers, C. Surface Studies of the Absorption of Aqueous and Gaseous Hcl on the Low Index Planes of Copper. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1988, 135, C158-C158.

Stickney, J. L. ; Ehlers, C. B. ; Gregory, B. W. Surface-Chemistry of Copper Electrodes - Preliminary Studies. Acs Symposium Series 1988, 378, 99-110.

1987

Schardt, B. C. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Stern, D. A. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Zapien, D. C. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Lead onto Platinum(111) in Aqueous Bromide Solutions - Studies by Leed and Auger-Spectroscopy. Langmuir 1987, 3, 239-244.

Bravo, B. G. ; Mebrahtu, T. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Zapien, D. C. ; Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. Reversible Redox of 2,5-Dihydroxythiophenol Chemisorbed on Gold and Platinum-Electrodes - Evidence for Substrate-Mediated Adsorbate Adsorbate Interactions. Langmuir 1987, 3, 595-597.

1986

Schardt, B. C. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Stern, D. A. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Zapien, D. C. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Pb onto Pt(111) in Aqueous Chloride Solutions - Studies by Leed and Auger-Spectroscopy. Surface Science 1986, 175, 520-534.

Salaita, G. N. ; Stern, D. A. ; Lu, F. ; Baltruschat, H. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Frank, D. G. ; Hubbard, A. T. Structure and Composition of a Platinum(111) Surface as a Function of Ph and Electrode Potential in Aqueous Bromide Solutions. Langmuir 1986, 2, 828-835.

Stickney, J. L. ; Stern, D. A. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Zapien, D. C. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Pb onto Pt (111) Surfaces Containing Iodine Adlattices - Studies by Low-Energy Electron-Diffraction and Auger-Spectroscopy. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1986, 213, 293-300.

Stickney, J. L. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Stern, D. A. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Tin onto a Well-Defined Pt(111) Surface from Aqueous Hbr Solutions - Studies by Leed and Auger-Electron Spectroscopy. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1986, 133, 648-650.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Baltruschat, H. ; Frank, D. G. ; Lu, F. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Stern, D. A. ; Stickney, J. L. Interaction of Pt Surfaces with Aqueous Cl-, Br-, and I- Solutions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1986, 133, C127-C127.

1985

Frank, D. G. ; Katekaru, J. Y. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stern, D. A. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Ph and Potential Dependence of the Electrical Double-Layer at Well-Defined Electrode Surfaces - Cs+ and Ca-2+ at Pt(111)(2 Square-Root 3x2 Square-Root 3)R30-Degrees-Cn, Pt(111)(Square-Root 13xsquare-Root 13)R14-Degrees-Cn, and Pt(111)(2x2)-Sc. Langmuir 1985, 1, 587-592.

Schardt, B. C. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Stern, D. A. ; Frank, D. G. ; Katekaru, J. Y. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Hubbard, A. T. Surface Coordination Chemistry of Well-Defined Platinum-Electrodes - Surface Polyprotic Acidity of Pt(111)(2-Square-Root-3x2-Square-Root-3)R30-Degrees-Cnh. Inorganic Chemistry 1985, 24, 1419-1421.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Frank, D. G. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stern, D. A. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Salaita, G. N. Ionic Adsorption and Electrodeposition at Well-Defined Surfaces. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 1985, 189, 71-Coll.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Hubbard, A. T. Ordered Ionic Layers Formed on Pt(111) from Aqueous-Solutions. Langmuir 1985, 1, 66-71.

Rosasco, S. D. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Frank, D. G. ; Katekaru, J. Y. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stern, D. A. ; Hubbard, A. T. Cation Competition in the Electrical Double-Layer at a Well-Defined Electrode Surface - Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, H+, Mg-2+, Ca-2+, Ba-2+, La-3+, Tetramethylammonium, Choline and Acetylcholine Cations at Pt (111) Surfaces Containing an Ordered Layer of Cyanide. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1985, 188, 95-104.

1984

Wieckowski, A. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Preparation of Well-Defined Surfaces at Atmospheric-Pressure - Studies by Electrochemistry and Leed of Pt(100) Pretreated with Iodine. Inorganic Chemistry 1984, 23, 565-569.

Wieckowski, A. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Preparation of Well-Defined Surfaces at Atmospheric-Pressure - Studies of Structural Transformations of I, Ag-Adlattices on Pt(111) by Leed and Electrochemistry. Surface Science 1984, 146, 115-134.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Solomun, T. Electrodeposition at Well-Defined Surfaces. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 1984, 187, 62-Coll.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Hubbard, A. T. Ordered Ionic Layers Formed on Pt(111) in Solution. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 1984, 188, 8-Coll.

Chia, V. K. F. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Salaita, G. N. ; Hubbard, A. T. ; Benziger, J. B. ; Pang, K. W. P. Adsorption and Orientation of Hydroquinone and Hydroquinone Sulfonate at Platinum-Electrodes - Studies by Thin-Layer Electrochemistry, Leed, Auger and Infrared-Spectroscopy. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1984, 163, 407-413.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Silver onto Pt(100) Surfaces Containing Iodine Ad-Lattices - Studies by Low-Energy Electron-Diffraction, Auger-Spectroscopy, and Thermal-Desorption. Journal of Physical Chemistry 1984, 88, 251-258.

Solomun, T. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Wieckowski, A. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Studies of Electrodeposition of Silver on an Iodine-Pretreated Stepped Surface - Pt(S)[6(111)X(111)]. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1984, 176, 309-323.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrodeposition of Copper on Platinum(111) Surfaces Pretreated with Iodine - Studies by Leed, Auger-Spectroscopy, and Electrochemistry. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1984, 131, 260-267.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Chia, V. K. F. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Solomun, T. ; Song, D. ; White, J. H. ; Wieckowski, A. Electrochemical Processes at Well-Defined Surfaces. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1984, 168, 43-66.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Schardt, B. C. ; Solomun, T. ; Hubbard, A. T. ; Parkinson, B. A. Demonstration of the Surface Stability of the Vanderwaals Surface (0001) of Mose2 by Leed and Electrochemistry. Surface Science 1984, 136, 15-22.

1983

Hubbard, A. T. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. ; White, J. H. Electrochemistry of Adsorbed Aromatic Intermediates. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1983, 130, C118-C119.

Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. The Effect of Orientation of Adsorbed Intermediates on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Aromatic-Compounds. Journal of Molecular Catalysis 1983, 21, 211-221.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Song, D. Electrodeposition on a Well-Defined Surface - Silver on Pt(111)(Square-Root-7xsquare-Root-7)R19.1-Degrees-I. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1983, 150, 165-180.

Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Song, D. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Hubbard, A. T. Super-Lattices Formed by Electrodeposition of Silver on Iodine-Pretreated Pt(111) - Studies by Leed, Auger-Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry. Surface Science 1983, 130, 326-347.

Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrochemical Oxidation of Aromatic-Compounds Adsorbed on Platinum-Electrodes - the Influence of Molecular-Orientation. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1983, 144, 207-215.

Hubbard, A. T. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Rosasco, S. D. ; Soriaga, M. P. Electrodeposition at Well-Defined Electrode Surfaces. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1983, 130, C123-C123.

1982

Soriaga, M. P. ; Stickney, J. L. ; Hubbard, A. T. Electrochemical Oxidation of Aromatic-Compounds Adsorbed on Platinum-Electrodes - the Influence of Molecular-Orientation. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 1982, 184, 124-&.

1981

Stickney, J. L. ; Soriaga, M. P. ; Hubbard, A. T. ; Anderson, S. E. A Survey of Factors Influencing the Stability of Organic Functional-Groups Attached to Platinum-Electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 1981, 125, 73-88.